A quarter of Americans have had a concussion, and we’re still far from understanding its consequences.

A quarter of Americans have had a concussion, and we’re still far from understanding its consequences.

At the end of the third quarter of the fantastic Notre Dame at Texas college football season opener on September 4, there were about 30 seconds left.

Irish wide receiver Torii Hunter Jr. leapt up to catch what looked like a touchdown pass that would have given Notre Dame the lead. But Texas defensive back DeShon Elliott slammed into Hunter with a hit that at least appeared to to make direct contact with his helmet. The ball fell to the ground and Hunter didn’t get up.

After several minutes of checking to ensure he could still move his arms and legs, the medical team helped him to his feet and walked him to the locker room. The redshirt junior team captain is now in what’s known as the concussion protocol, which means that he’s supposed to return to baseline levels of cognitive performance and balance before slowly ramping up physical activity again.

It’s unclear whether or not Hunter will be cleared to play in the Irish home opener against Nevada on September 10.

We now pay a lot more attention to head injuries in football and other sports, as we’re more aware now of the potential long term consequences than we have ever been. But that doesn’t mean we are anywhere close to figuring out what to do about these injuries.

Hunter’s return is unclear in part because every individual hit to the head is unique, as is the recovery process. But the issue is also something much larger: We still don’t understand nearly as much as we would hope to about brain injuries, despite the fact that they are astonishingly common.

“Part of the biggest problem that we have is that we still don’t know exactly what a concussion is,” Dr. Chad Asplund, medical director of athletics sports medicine at Georgia Southern University, tells Business Insider. We know how concussions happen and we’ve observed a number of different symptoms triggered by brain trauma, but we still don’t know exactly at what point these injuries (or smaller sub-concussive hits) lead to permanent damage.

Almost a quarter of Americans report having suffered a concussion, according to a recent NPR-Truven Health Analytics Health Poll.

therudedogshow@hotmail.comA quarter of Americans have had a concussion, and we’re still far from understanding its consequences.
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Which Youth Sports Cause the Most Concussions?

A Prospective 11-Year Study

Background: Understanding the risk and trends of sports-related concussion among 12 scholastic sports may contribute to concussion detection, treatment, and prevention.

Purpose: To examine the incidence and relative risk of concussion in 12 high school boys’ and girls’ sports between academic years 1997-1998 and 2007-2008.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

Methods: Data were prospectively gathered for 25 schools in a large public high school system. All schools used an electronic medical record-keeping program. A certified athletic trainer was on-site for games and practices and electronically recorded all injuries daily.

Results: In sum, 2651 concussions were observed in 10 926 892 athlete-exposures, with an incidence rate of 0.24 per 1000. Boys’ sports accounted for 53% of athlete-exposures and 75% of all concussions. Football accounted for more than half of all concussions, and it had the highest incidence rate (0.60). Girls’ soccer had the most concussions among the girls’ sports and the second-highest incidence rate of all 12 sports (0.35). Concussion rate increased 4.2-fold (95% confidence interval, 3.4-5.2) over the 11 years (15.5% annual increase). In similar boys’ and girls’ sports (baseball/softball, basketball, and soccer), girls had roughly twice the concussion risk of boys. Concussion rate increased over time in all 12 sports.

Conclusion: Although the collision sports of football and boys’ lacrosse had the highest number of concussions and football the highest concussion rate, concussion occurred in all other sports and was observed in girls’ sports at rates similar to or higher than those of boys’ sports. The increase over time in all sports may reflect actual increased occurrence or greater coding sensitivity with widely disseminated guidance on concussion detection and treatment. The high-participation collision sports of football and boys’ lacrosse warrant continued vigilance, but the findings suggest that focus on concussion detection, treatment, and prevention should not be limited to those sports traditionally associated with concussion risk.

therudedogshow@hotmail.comWhich Youth Sports Cause the Most Concussions?
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